OsmondCocoa Tools

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- Select Tool

Use this tool to select parts, freehand traces, and unsupported pegs.

To select this tool, click on the Select Tool button in the tool palette or press the Space bar on the keyboard.

To use this tool, click and drag through an area of the view. Parts that have a pad or vertex anywhere within the selection area on the current layer will be selected. Also, freehand paths that have a vertex within the selection area and unsupported pegs within the selection area will be selected. You can also select a part by clicking within one of the pads belonging to that part.

Parts that are selected will change their appearance: Pads belonging to selected parts will be greyed and paths will be dashed. Unsupported pegs that are selected will show a small square mark.

This tool lets you use the shift key, like other Macintosh applications, to add parts to the selection list (if not already selected), or to remove parts from the selection list (if they are selected).

By default, an area select will select parts, freehand paths, and unsupported pegs. Double click the select tool to bring up the dialog below. This will allow you to choose which items can be selected. By default, an area select applies only to the current layer. If you check the All Layers button, an area select will apply to all layers.

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You can also use this tool to move parts by clicking on a pad and dragging to a new location.

If the part, freehand path, or unsupported peg that you move is a member of the group of selected items, the entire group moves together as one.

You can also move part name or part value text by clicking within the text and dragging to a new location.

Because moving and rotating components often go together during initial placement, this tool has been augmented to allow you to rotate items. If you hold down the option key, the tool can now be used to rotate parts in a counter-clockwise direction. If you simultaneously hold down the option and shift keys, the tool will rotate in the clockwise direction.

If you click on a feature while holding down the Command key, a dialog appears as shown below. This dialog shows the position of the feature you clicked and lets you manually change that position. The position can be an absolute position relative to the lower left-hand corner of the design area, relative to the current grid origin, or relative to the current position of the feature. The grid origin can be changed with the Origin/Index Tool described later. Using the pull-down menu next to the edit field, you can specify the position in either millimeters or mils.

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If you click the Polar button, the dialog changes as shown below. This dialog shows you the current position of the feature clicked in polar coordinates and lets you manually change the position, also in polar coordinates.

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- Zoom Tool

Use this tool to increase or decrease the magnification of the view.

To select the tool, click on the zoom tool button in the tool palette or press the Z key on the keyboard.

- When the tool is selected, the cursor will appear like this to allow you to increase the magnification.

- If you hold down the shift or option key, the cursor will appear like this to allow you to decrease the magnification.

To use the tool, click on any point in the view. The view will be redrawn with a new magnification and centered on the point you clicked.

You can also use the tool to select a region of your design by dragging through an area in the view. When you release the drag, the view is redrawn such that the region you selected fills the view.

To change the zoom factor (the amount that the magnification is increased or decreased each time the tool is used), double-click on the zoom tool button in the tool palette to bring up the dialog below.

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For example, a zoom factor of 2.0 will double the magnification of the view each time (or halve the magnification if the shift or option key is held down).

At the maximum magnification, each pixel on the screen represents the smallest resolution of the system (10 nanometers). For a standard 72 pixel per inch monitor, this means the maximum magnification is about 35000 times real size.

- Turn Tool

Use this tool to rotate parts, freehand paths, or silkscreen part names.

To select this tool, click on the Turn Tool button in the tool palette or press the T key on the keyboard.

To rotate a part with this tool, click on a pad or vertex that belongs to the part on the current layer. The part is rotated by a certain amount (the default is 90 degrees). The center of rotation is the location of the pad or vertex you clicked. When the part rotates, all paths that connect to pads on the part stretch to maintain their connections.

To rotate in the clockwise direction, hold down the shift key while you click.

Similarly, you can rotate a freehand path by clicking on one of its vertices. You can also rotate part name or part value text by clicking within the text.

If the part or freehand path you turn is a member of the group of selected parts or freehand paths, all the parts and freehand paths in the group will rotate together as a unit.

If you double-click on the Turn Tool in the tool palette, the dialog as shown below appears. This dialog gives you fine control over what items can be rotated with this tool. These can be enabled and disabled individually.

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The dialog also gives you the ability to modify the rotation angle as desired.

- Flip Tool

Use this tool to flip parts from one side of the board to the other.

To select this tool, click on the Flip Tool button on the tool palette.

To use this tool, click on a pad or vertex on the current layer belonging to a part. This causes the part to flip from one side of the board to the other, if possible. Specifically, the part is rotated around a line that passes through the feature that you clicked and is parallel to the part's own Y axis. When the part flips, all paths connected to pads on the part stretch to maintain their connections. If a path cannot maintain a connection (for example, because one of the pads is a surface pad that does not connect through the board), the flip is not allowed.

If the part you flip is a member of the group of selected parts, all members of the group will be flipped.

- Connect Tool

Use this tool to construct paths to connect pads.

To select this tool, click on the Connect Tool button on the tool palette or press the C key on the keyboard.

To use this tool, click on either a pad or on a vertex of a connecting path. If the pad or vertex belongs to a signal net, the name of the signal will be displayed in the text window just below the tool palette. In addition, all pads that belong to the signal will be highlighted in one of two colors

- All pads that are already connected to the pad or vertex that you clicked (through any connection on any layer) will appear in blue like this.

- Pads that should be but are not yet connected to the pad or vertex that you clicked (even if some of these pads are connected to each other) will appear in magenta like this.

To construct a connecting path, click on a pad (which will turn the pad blue) and drag toward a pad that is colored magenta. As you are dragging, a gray line will form from pad to pad to indicate that a connection is possible. Other similar actions are also possible: You can click on a pad and drag to a vertex of a connecting path, or you can click on a vertex of a connecting path and drag to either a pad or another vertex. In any case, a gray line lets you know that the connection is possible.

Once you release the drag, a straight path is drawn from point to point. This path can now be manipulated with other tools to route the path around obstacles.

The system will not let you connect pads that are already connected, even if the connection is on a different layer. The only exception is that two pads that are connected to a signal plane may be connected on some other layer. The system will also not allow you to connect more than three paths from any one pad or vertex.

Normally, this tool allows you to connect only pads that belong to the same signal net as defined by the net list. Several options, however, allow you to modify what pads are connected to the signal net.

If you hold down the Command key on the keyboard, you can use the tool to connect pads or connection paths that are not already connected, even if the pads do not yet belong to a signal net:

If you hold down both the Command and shift keys on the keyboard, you can use this tool to remove a pad from its signal net by just clicking on the pad. Make sure that you have removed all connecting paths from the pad first.

If you hold down the option key on the keyboard, you can use this tool to create a rats nest on the Rats Nest layer connecting all pins that belong to the signal of the pin you clicked.

- Attach Tool

Use this tool to attach an existing trace to a pad or to detach a trace that passes through a pad.

To select this tool, click on the Attach Tool button on the tool palette.

To use the tool, click on a trace and drag to a pad that belongs to the same signal as the trace. As you drag, ghost lines will be drawn showing the new path if the attachment is permitted. When you release the drag, the trace will be re-routed to pass through the the new pad. The illustration below shows an example circuit before and after using the Attach Tool.

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The inverse operation, detaching a trace, can be performed using this tool by holding down the shift key. Starting with the illustration above right, using this tool to click on the middle pad while depressing the shift key will result in the illustration above left.

You can normally attach a trace only to a pad that belongs to the same signal as the trace. However, if you hold down the Command key, this forces the attachment to any pad. If the pad does not already belong to a signal, it is added to the trace signal. If the pad already belongs to a signal, it is removed from its original signal (along with all connected pads) and added to the signal of the trace. Obviously, this changes the design so it should be used with caution.

- Pin Swap Tool

Use this tool to swap signals and connections between two pins.

To select this tool, click on the Pin Swap Tool button on the tool palette.

To use the tool, click on one pin and drag to another pin. As you drag, a line is drawn from the first pin to the second pin. When you release the drag, all signals and paths attached to the first pin are transferred to the second pin and vice-versa.

Since this tool can be used between any two pins, and since this could easily change your design, this tool should be used with caution.

- Cut Tool

Use this tool to remove connecting paths between pads or vertices.

To select this tool, click on the Cut Tool button on the tool palette or press the K key on the keyboard.

To use the tool, click on a path. If the path is a connecting path between two pads, the entire path is removed. If the path contains a fork where one path turns into two paths, only the path up to the fork is removed. If the path is a freehand path, only one segment of the path is removed.

If you click on a connecting path while holding down the option key, the paths to all pads (including forks) are removed and saved on the clipboard. You can then use the Paste menu command to restore the paths to the current layer or, (by first changing layers) redraw the paths on a different layer.

If you click on a connecting path while holding down the Command key, not only is the connecting path removed but the circuit is completely separated into two distinct signals. Since this changes the design, it should be used with caution.

- Drag Peg Tool

Use this tool to modify paths by constructing, moving, or deleting path vertices or pegs.

To select this tool, click on the Drag Peg tool button on the tool palette or press the D key on the keyboard.

When this tool is selected, to serve as an aid, a target symbol appears over the vertex that is closest to the cursor.

To use the tool, click on a vertex and drag it to a new location. As you drag, ghost lines stretch like rubber bands to show the connecting paths. When you finish dragging, the vertex snaps to the nearest grid location and the connecting paths are redrawn.

If you hold down the shift key, clicking on a vertex removes the vertex and the two connecting paths become a single straight path.

If you click on a path that does not contain a vertex, or on a path segment away from a vertex, a new vertex will be created in the path which you can then drag as before.

You can use this tool with paths on the Rats Nest layer even if the Rats Nest layer is not the current layer. Clicking on a Rats Nest path first transfers the path to the current layer and then operates on it there

- Wrap Tool

Use this tool to route connecting paths around obstacles.

To select this tool, click on the Wrap Tool button on the tool palette or press the W key on the keyboard.

To use this tool, click on a path and drag it beyond a pad or vertex. As you drag, ghost lines will stretch like rubber bands to show you the result of the drag. The path will stretch in such a way that the an adequate amount of spacing is maintained between the path and the pad or vertex around which it is wrapped. This tool can be used repeatedly until the path is completely routed.

For example, the two pictures below show a simple design before and after the wrap tool is used.

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You can use this tool with paths on the Rats Nest layer even if the Rats Nest layer is not the current layer. Clicking on a Rats Nest path first transfers the path to the current layer and then operates on it there

- Quick Route Tool

Use this tool to route paths, especially using paths from the Rats Nest layer.

To select this tool, click on the Quick Route tool button on the tool palette or press the Q key on the keyboard. When the tool is selected, a floating palette of bend options appears as shown below.

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These bend options allow you to specify how path bends are constrained as the path is routed from pin to pin.

The first option specifies no constraint. That is, paths are routed in a straight line from point to point.

The second option specifies vertical or horizontal followed by diagonal. That is, the path from point A to point B is constrained so that the first part of the path is either horizontal or vertical and the remaining portion is a diagonal path at a 45 degree angle.

The third option specifies diagonal followed by vertical or horizontal. A path from point A to point B is constrained so that the first part is a diagonal path at a 45 degree angle and the remaining portion is either vertical or horizontal.

The fourth option specifies horizontal followed by vertical.

The fifth option specifies vertical followed by horizontal.

Before describing the sixth option (which is somewhat different) let us discuss how the first five operate.

To show how the tool works, consider a simple example as shown below. This shows pads connected by a path on the Rats Nest layer.

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Assuming that the second bend option is chosen (vertical or horizontal followed by diagonal), clicking on the path near the left pin (and releasing) erases the rats nest path and produces something like this.

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Because we clicked near the left pin, it is the start pin. The pin at the right is the end pin. The solid line originating at the start pin is first horizontal and then diagonal in agreement with the chosen bend option. The dotted line completes the path to the end pin.

We can move the cursor down and then click to produce this.

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This shows that a portion of the final path consisting of a horizontal section followed by a diagonal section has been assigned to the current layer. At this point we could move to another layer to place a portion of the path on a different layer. Or we can simply complete the route by clicking on the end pin to produce this.

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If we had placed different portions of the path on different layers, vias would be inserted automatically where needed.

Once you have begun to route a path, solid and dotted rubber band lines will follow your cursor until you either complete the route, suspend the route, or abort the route.

You can suspend the route by pressing the escape key. When you suspend the route, the route that you have done so far is kept and the path is completed temporarily with a single straight path, which you can then route later with this or other tools.

You can abort the path by either choosing a different tool from the tool palette or by clicking on the start pin.

This tool can also be used starting with paths on any layer, not just the Rats Nest layer. When you click on a path, normally only the single path segment clicked is involved in the route. However, if you hold down the option key while clicking, the path is first completely straightened. This allows you to abandon an existing route and define a new route from scratch.

The sixth option, shown in below, lets you sample the pattern of bends from an existing path so you can then apply that same pattern to other paths. Of course, this works only if the spacing of end points of the new path matches the spacing of end points in the sampled path. However, one often finds this situation in practice, especially when routing bus signals.

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With this option selected, you can sample an existing bend pattern by clicking on the path while holding down the shift key. The cursor changes to a dropper while the shift key is depressed. With a pattern sampled, you can now apply the pattern to another path by clicking on the other path. However, if the spacing of end points of the clicked path does not match the spacing of end points of the sampled path, nothing is changed.

- Width Tool

Use this tool to change path widths and path minimum spacings.

To select this tool, click on the Width Tool button in the tool palette.

To use the tool, click on a path. The width and minimum spacing of the path will be changed to the current tool values and the path redrawn.

To modify the current tool values, double-click on the Width Tool on the tool palette to bring up the dialog below.

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Normally, the tool changes the width and spacing of a path along its entire length from pad to pad. By selecting the Apply to Single Segment Only check box, you can force the tool to change the width and spacing of only a single path segment. This can be useful if you need to "neck down" a path to allow it to pass through a narrow passageway.

Using the pull-down menu next to each edit field, you can specify the width and spacing in either millimeters or mils.

If you hold down the option button while clicking, the dialog above appears with the current tool values changed to those of the path you clicked. Modifying the values and pressing the OK button will then change the width and/or minimum spacing of the path.

Osmond If you hold down the shift button, the cursor will change to this icon to indicate that you are now in sample mode. If you click on any path while in sample mode, the current tool values will change to that of the clicked path. This is very useful if you wish to make one path the same width as another path; you simply sample one path and then click on the other.